The archaeological excavation materials since the founding of the People's Republic of China prove that the history of manufacturing and using jade articles in China has a long history. Since the Neolithic Age, jade as an important material and cultural relic, not only has a wide distribution in the land of China, but also plays different roles in various historical periods, and plays an important role in all aspects of social production and social life. The role, thus forming a long-lasting jade culture tradition in the history of Chinese civilization, is one of the important reasons why Chinese culture can be independent of the world's national culture. Since jade and jade culture have such important value, the academic community should have attached great importance to it. But in fact, both in theory and in the basics, the study of jade and jade culture is still in its infancy. The academic research of jade articles has formed a strong contrast with the "love jade fever" in society. Therefore, it is necessary to explore and study jade culture and establish a jade culture academic system. The author is not too embarrassed, and I would like to express my own tastes about the research field of jade culture. If there is anything wrong or omission, please advise me. And hope that this article can play a role in attracting jade.
First, the concept of "Jade" and "Jade"
Before discussing the study of jade culture, we must first define the concept of "jade" and "jade".
â€œJade is a special ore with social and jewels that has been screened and confirmed by ancient people in the process of using stone tools for tens of thousands of years.â€ "Said Wen Jie Zi" Shi Yu as "the beauty of stone, jade also" "Ci Hai" is a simplified definition of jade as "warm and shiny beauty stone." These kinds of statements are the jade we have said in a broad sense today. It includes not only jade and jade, but also other traditional jade such as Xiuyan jade, Nanyang jade, crystal, agate, amber, coral, turquoise, lapis lazuli. Modern mineralogy divides jade into two categories: jadeite and nephrite. Jadeite is jadeite, and nephrite mainly refers to the jadeite of Xinjiang. This is the definition of jade in the narrow sense. From the history of jade in China, only Xinjiang and Daiyu were used on a large scale after the Shang Dynasty. Before that, the jade materials used in various places were basically all kinds of beautiful stones from local sources. Therefore, the definition of Chinese jade cannot simply rely on the standards of modern mineralogy, but should respect the traditional habits from the historical point of view, and use the broad jade as the object of our study of jade and jade culture.
Regarding the concept of jade, we believe that the jade in the broad sense should have three characteristics: one is that the material meets the requirements of â€œMei Shiâ€; the second is the basic style of the typical jade in the shape; the third is the jade made. It must be done by special methods of making jade, such as grinding and drilling, rather than the general stone making process. Furthermore, the jade we are studying should have a certain historical era and must emphasize its historical heritage value. The jade that belongs to today's production is a handicraft or an item with a special purpose, not our research object.
Second, the research category of jade culture
During the development and evolution of Chinese jaundice, Chinese jade has formed its own unique jade culture system. Chinese jade culture is an important part of Chinese culture. It should include the following aspects:
(1) The first is to study the origin of jade and its variety and decorative art (including modeling and pattern) and the continuous enrichment and development of jade technology (production process), that is, the history of jade development. With jade, when it started, it is not known. According to "Historical Records": The Yellow Emperor has decided to make a jade system. It is concluded that the use of jade at that time has become extremely common. Since the use of jade has been customized, the use of jade jade has been around for a long time, and should not begin in the Yellow Emperor era.
According to archaeological excavation materials, the earliest jade discovered in China so far appeared in the early Neolithic period from 7000-8000 years ago. In the medium term, it has been widely distributed in the north and south of the Yangtze River. In the late period, it is in the eastern part of the country from the Hongshan culture in the Liaohe River Basin, and in the south to the vast half-moon coastal area of â€‹â€‹the Guangdong Shixia culture. Early jade was originally used as a jewel, utility or property, and then slowly demonstrated its use of ceremonial activities through its connection with primitive religion and primitive worship. The development of ancient Chinese jade has experienced three climaxes: the prehistoric jade is the most developed with the Hongshan culture jade, the Lingjiatan jade and the Liangzhu culture jade, reaching the first peak of the development of Chinese jade. The second climax is the historical period of Shang, Zhou, Qin and Han. As the jade is constantly deified, the status of jade is rising rapidly. The jade rituals have been â€œheatedâ€ in the whole society since the Shang Dynasty, so as to form A trend. In the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, due to the influence of the human-centered doctrines, the jade rituals were relatively reduced, and the jade ornaments were greatly increased, and a set of sword ornaments, hooks and personal jade appeared, and the production of jade articles entered the service. The practical field and reached its climax in the Han Dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms, the Jin Dynasty and the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the development of Chinese jade articles went into a trough. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, as the country moved from reunification to prosperity, the jade carving process also rose again, but the good times did not last long. After the demise of the Tang Dynasty, the "five generations and ten countries" appeared, and the pace of jade development was relatively slow. In the Song Dynasty, with the unification of the country, the prosperity of the urban economy, and the expansion of the citizen class, the development of jade articles entered a period of high prosperity, and jade articles developed in the direction of secularization and decoration. By the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it reached the peak of the development of Chinese ancient jade and formed the third climax in the history of Chinese jade.
After thousands of years of inheritance and development, Chinese jade articles are constantly enriched and developed. From prehistoric quaint juvenile to Qin and Han dynasty, and then developed to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the exquisite and profound, experienced a "by" The development of things - "God" - "people" - "things" is a different product of different eras, different regions, and different ideas. It is worth noting that the development of jade art is also influenced by contemporary art trends and cultural trends. Jade art belongs to the scope of arts and crafts, and its development is not isolated. It is influenced by contemporary painting and sculpture art, and is closely related to other arts and crafts. It is not difficult to find out when people look closely. Jade, ceramics, gold and silverware, bronzes, etc. in the same period often have many similarities in shape and ornamentation. As most of the Shang and Zhou bronze decoration similar to Jade in the same period; and if the Sui and Tang jade affected sculpture, painting in the Qin and Han on the basis of realism, showing new features: jade utensils of gold and silver styling affected, it is grace luxurious, plump and full; jade carving animal sculpture by the influence of the arts, muscles bulge, distinctive features; jade carving figure image of simple, life-like and so on. These reflect a major breakthrough in the theme of decorative jade art. It can be seen that the development of jade art is inseparable from the artistic trend of the time.
The craftsmanship of the jade is progressing with the development of the times. The separation of the jade craft from the prehistoric stone-making process indicates that the manufacturing of jade has begun, and the emergence of jade, the important tool of jade, marks the production of jade. We have entered a mature stage. Thallium with what appeared to when the current academic inconclusive, yet new archaeological data to show. The techniques of jade jade such as opening, forming, subtracting the earth, engraving, embossing, round carving, carving, drilling, pretty color, live ring, curve composition, gold and silver, inlaid gemstones, polishing, etc. The progress of the times and the development of productivity have become increasingly sophisticated. In fact, the history of Chinese jade Chinese jade is the history of the development process. Accurate understanding of the characteristics of the jade articles of the past and the typical shapes, decorative arts and jade crafts of different eras is the basis for studying jade culture.
(2) It is the study of the multicultural connotation of jade articles. In the history of the development of Chinese jade culture with a long history, with the massive excavation of jade articles and the deepening of people's understanding and understanding of jade articles, jade articles have gradually been given more and more cultural connotations. In summary, there are the following main points:
1. Production tools. At the beginning of the birth of jade, it was used as a production tool. In the Neolithic sites such as Hongshan Culture, Dawenkou Culture, Liangzhuwen and other Neolithic sites, jade-made chisel, axe and other production tools were unearthed, some with traces of use, indicating that it was used in production or war.
2, the ritual. In the long-term struggle for survival, ancient humans produced a wrong world view because of confusion and misunderstanding of various natural phenomena and social phenomena. Thus, early totem worship, reproductive worship and ancestor worship emerged, and gradually developed to The special mission (the wizard) holds a special tool to carry out the mission of sacrifice. This special tool is the sacrificial device. In the middle and late Neolithic Age in China, jade rituals occupied an extremely important position. The original ancestors believed that the jade has the function of being a god, is a cult of the gods, and is an idol. In the stage of slave society, jade serves as the royal family as the ritual of the ritual system. The "six instruments" are the jade articles of the gods of nature during the Shang and Zhou dynasties, "to worship the heavens, to worship the land, to worship the land, to the east, to the red In the south of the rites, the whites are in the west, and the north is in the north. This system of sacrifices was inherited by the emperors of the feudal society. The use of jade gods is one of the important functions of jade.
3. Decorations. The custom of decorating jade articles began in the Neolithic Age. It is known that the earliest jade ornaments were used in the 7000-8000 years of Xinglongyu culture. From its unearthed position, it is the ear ornament. In the Yin and Shang Dynasties, Peiyu is also more common. There are a lot of hair accessories, headwear, neck ornaments and waist ornaments in the Yinxu women's tomb. In the Warring States Period, there was a group of jade articles, which were made up of different types of jade. In the Qin and Han Dynasties, Peiyu became a popular fashion. After the Han Dynasty, especially in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the types and forms of decorative jade became more and more elaborate, and the production was more refined. The decorative function of jade gradually became its main social function.
4. The sign of power and rank. The phenomenon of showing power and grade in jade has been seen in the jade artifacts unearthed from the original cultural sites of Xinle and Hemudu, while the jade articles unearthed from the Hongshan and Liangzhu cultural sites have shown a series of tendencies. It shows that the society has been divided during the period of Hongshan and Liangzhu culture, the ruling group has been formed, and it exercises political, military, religious, family and other aspects of ruling power. After the Zhou Dynasty, the feudal ruling class produced a large number of jade rituals and instruments to maintain the ritual system. The pre-Qin literatures such as "Zhou Li", "Yi Li", "Book of Rites" and so on recorded the name, shape, specifications and uses of the Western-related jade articles. According to "Zhou Li" contains: "Jade as a six-rec, to wait for the state. Wang Zhizhen Gui, the public executive Gui, Hou Zhixin Gui, Bo Zhiyu Gui, Zi Zhigu, male to hold Pu." The grades are different, and the jade articles are different. Since then, each dynasty has strict rules on what kind of rituals and what kind of jade ornaments to wear, in order to avoid confusion and overstepping. Jade is not only a sign of power and rank, but also a kind of display of wealth. Therefore, jade is valued by the aristocratic ruling group.
5, funeral. "The funerary jade" refers to the burial jade that was specially made to preserve the body, rather than the jade that is buried in the tomb. The use of jade burial in the Neolithic Age has already begun. In the era of the imperial power of the Qin and Han Dynasties, under the influence of filial piety and thick burial atmosphere, the burial jade with thousands of years of history has become perfect. The customs of jade burial is an important connotation of jade culture.
6, mascot. In ancient times, jade was used as a ritual, and it contained the meaning of praying for good fortune. The primitive ancestors could not understand and resist the unpredictable circumstances of the natural world and the blessings of the world. They can only resort to the blessing of the gods, and jade is a kind of relic that communicates with the gods and prays for good fortune. In ancient China, jade was regarded as auspicious in the early days. In almost every dynasty, the appearance and contribution of jade was regarded as a sign of auspiciousness. There are a lot of records in this history. People pray for good fortune, often manifested by the auspicious or auspicious patterns engraved on the jade. For example, Han Shuanglongâ€™s â€œChangleâ€ valley pattern is represented by the auspicious word â€œChangleâ€ and the auspicious pattern Ssangyong. After the Ming Dynasty, the jade ornaments of various auspicious patterns were especially common, reflecting the common desire of people to pray for good fortune. Associated with the pray for auspicious wishes, it is to exorcise evil spirits. Good fortune and good fortune are opposite, can avoid sinister disasters, and they are auspicious happiness. Therefore, the so-called "pressure wins" in ancient times, such as "gang å¯", "severe å¯", "Si Nan ç®", "çŽ‰ç¿ä»²" and so on are mainly to avoid sin and avoid security. Pray for good fortune and to avoid disaster is the common aspiration of mankind. People believe that jade can play a role in avoiding evil and avoiding security, reflecting the human yearning for a better life. This concept is not so much a superstition, but rather a custom, a custom built by history and culture.
7, the symbol of moral integrity. Since the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, with the great changes in the social system, the ruling class advocated jade articles in order to maintain stability and consolidate its state power, and advocated the concept of "gentlemen be better than jade" from the social concept. Jade articles are increasingly symbolized as virtues. Received attention. Confucius clarified that Yu had the virtues of benevolence, knowledge, righteousness, rites, music, loyalty, faith, heaven, earth, morality, and morality. Although this view is a bit too much, it represents the Confucian understanding and view of jade, emphasizing that the preciousness of jade is not in the external beauty, but in its connotation and the spiritual world of human beings are closely related to each other. In addition, Yu Shang has the saying of â€œfive virtuesâ€ and â€œnine virtuesâ€. People are endowed with the connotation of virtue and virtue, and make jade the embodiment of a gentleman. Because jade is endowed with such a rich moral connotation, gentlemen must wear it. The gentleman Pei Yu, without any reason, will become a fashion. The gentleman is better than the jade, and the jade is a symbol of the gentleman. In the Book of Songs, jade is also used to describe the noble character, and jade is used as a symbol of the gentleman, as the standard for the establishment of the dynasty as an official and a human being. This connotation of jade is full of humanistic spirit and ethics. It is not only the inheritance of the concept of jade god in ancient society, but also the requirement of noble custom of noble world.
8, synonymous with good things. The earliest appearance of jade is a human body ornament. It can be said that jade articles have been linked to the United States from the appearance of one. Since the intuitive beauty of jade has always been loved by people, "Jade" has become a symbol of all good things. Qing Yujiao "Qun Jingping? Erya II": "Between the ancients, whoever is beautiful is the word of Yu. The "Jade Food", "Book of Rites", "Jade Girl" and "Yi Li" The 'Yu Jin' is also also." The modifiers with "Jade" as the beauty are everywhere in ancient literature. For example, the character of the metaphor is "Jade Jie Bingqing", which describes the appearance of human beings as "Yu Rong" and "Jade Appearance". The figure and grace of the people are "Yushu Linfeng" praised the Emperor of Heaven as "Jade Emperor" and "Jade Emperor", and said that the place of residence is "Yuyu Qionglou", and the good voice is "Jade Sound". Even jade is used to praise the beauty of music and the beauty of poetry. Musical instruments such as flute, cymbals, cymbals, and violins are often decorated with "jade" and are called jade, jade, jade, jade. Qin. The use of jade in literary works to describe the beauty of literary music or the style of poetry and the beauty of the realm is more common. The former, such as Liu Wei's "Wen Xin Diao Long? Vocal" "is left to look for the right, the last stagnation and the front, then the sound turns to kiss, exquisite such as Zhenyu" is an example. The latter, such as the land machine "Wen Fu" "Shi Yuyu and the mountain halo, water Huaizhu and Chuan Mei" is the beauty of the paper with the beauty of jade, and so on, too many to mention. Since the Han Dynasty, the name of the jade or jade has gradually become a fashion, and jade has become the embodiment of all good things.
9, drugs. Jade can be healthy and longevity, and life is not old. This is a very popular view in ancient China. In ancient times, the so-called "Sheng Jade Liquid", "Shen Xian Jade Pulp", "Jade Cream". "Yuzhi", "Yuyu", "Jade" and so on, all refer to edible jade products, and their efficacy is "the service is not old for many years." Li Shizhenâ€™s "Compendium of Materia Medica", Liu Datong's "Guo Jade" and "Hetu Jade Edition", "Shizhou Ji", "Baopuzi", "Kaiyuan Tianbao Relic", "Sheng Huifang" and other documents are recorded. It is good for eating jade and jade. In addition, jade can also be beautiful. There is such a prescription in the famous medical classics of the Song Dynasty, "Sheng Ji Lu", "face scars, true jade grinding day, and self-destruction for a long time." "Han Shu? Wang Biography" also has this record.
The above discusses the rich connotation and practical functions of jade from nine aspects. Although from today's point of view, these connotations may not all have scientific basis, but they are a historical and cultural accumulation, a product of human ideals and imagination. For a long time, due to the conventions of the society, it has been widely recognized by the world. Of course, judging from the records of ancient and ancient documents, the connotation of jade culture is far more than this. For example, jade is used for divination in ancient times to determine matters; for bribery or gift, reward or collateral, exchange With Yu Shenhe and so on, the rich connotation of jade culture has yet to be excavated and analyzed.
(3) It is the study of the jade production system. The jade production system should belong to the category of handicraft development history. It involves many problems, such as the source of jade, the running route of jade, the source of jade craftsmen in various historical periods, the position of jade craftsmen in production activities, the official jade workshop and folk The operation mode, production scale, jade technology, process efficiency and the relationship between them in jade workshops are the study of the economic history of jade articles. This is a key issue related to the development of Chinese jade itself. It is the economic foundation for the continued prosperity of jade culture for thousands of years, and it is also the most lacking place for jade research over the years.
(4) It is the study of the history, research and appreciation of Chinese jade, namely the study of the academic history of jade articles. The study of jade articles in China began in the Northern Song Dynasty. With the advent of Jinshixue, jade articles entered the research scope of the scholar-officials. The eighth volume of Lu Dalinâ€™s Archaeological Map was jade, which was the first of its kind. Later, there was the "Jade Map" compiled by Zhu Derun in the Yuan Dynasty, the "Geo Ancients" written by Cao Zhao in the Ming Dynasty, the "Zunsheng Gossip? Yan Leisure" in Gaochun, and the ancient jade compiled by Wu Dazhao in the Qing Dynasty. The "Study of the Book", the "Jade" of Chen, and the "Jade Jade" of the Republic of China Liu Datong have come out one after another, indicating that the research of jade has flourished.
With the deepening of jade research, the appreciation and collection of jade articles have received increasing attention. In fact, the jade collection and collection in China has a long history. Like the jade artifacts of the Shijiahe culture unearthed in the Yinxu women's tomb, it can be regarded as a collection of Neolithic jade by the Shang Dynasty. Of course, this collection is spontaneous and simple, and may only be collected for its beauty, which may be different from the historical value of our collection of ancient jade today. After the Song Dynasty, with the prosperity of Jinshixue, the collection of ancient jade became a common practice. However, due to the limited number of ancient jade, it can not meet the needs of an increasing number of collectors, so the antique jade came into being, and flooded the market. After the development of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, a series of ancient jade imitations appeared. Once the antique jade appears, the jade identification is very important, which promotes the depth of jade research.
The research, appreciation, identification and collection of jade articles complement each other. It is an elegant cultural activity with strong academic atmosphere. It is the enduring endurance of this kind of activity that will push China's jade research and jade culture to a higher level. Stage.
This paper discusses the research scope of jade culture from four aspects. The depth and breadth of these four aspects are unbalanced. The first and second studies have received more attention, and many monographs and papers have been published. Although the latter two studies have been discussed, they still need to be strengthened. Only in this way can the study of jade culture become a complete academic system.
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